Lyme Disease Paper

Borrelia burgdorferi


Lyme disease was first recognized in the usa in 1975 by Dr . Allen Steere, following a mysterious outbreak of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis near the community of Lyme, Connecticut. The agricultural location of the Lyme outbreak plus the onset of health issues during summer time and early on fall recommended that the indication of the disease was by simply an arthropod vector.

Adult female Ixodes tick (deer tick) From Brownish University In 1982, the instrumental agent of Lyme disease was uncovered by Willy Burgdorfer, who isolated spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the mid-guts from the species Ixodes ticks. Spirochettes are pleomorphic. They appear spiral-shaped, but have advanced the capacity to cover in vulgaris and groupe, changing to a round ball and then back to a spin out of control. Lyme experts believe now that is correct the bacterias move through the tissues and bloodstreams in the body. Burgdorfer showed these spirochetes reacted with immune system serum by patients that had been diagnosed with Lyme disease. Therefore, the etiologic agent was handed the brand Borrelia burgdorferi. Classification

Site: Bacteria Phylum: Spirochaetes Purchase: Spirochaetales Family members: Spirochaetaceae Genus: Borrelia Varieties Borrelia burgdorferi Strains of Borrelia

The borreliae causing Lyme disease will be divided into a number of " genospecies", three which have been firmly established and are also well accepted: I. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

II. Borrelia garinii

III. Borrelia afzelii


Lyme disease generally presents which has a characteristic " bull's eyesight rash”, erythema migrans, along with fever, fatigue, headaches, muscle pains, and joint aches. The incubation period from disease to onset of the allergy is typically 1-2 weeks. A lot of patients might be asymptomatic and present with only non-specific symptoms. N. burgdorferi is usually spread in the site with the tick nip through the system. There are three clinical phases of Lyme disease: 1) the Localized Early (Acute) Stage, 2) the Early Disseminated Stage and 3) the Late Level. The severe stage is usually characterized by a great red or perhaps bull's vision rash at the site in the bite, swelling of the lymph glands near the bite, general achiness and headache. The first disseminated stage is characterized by two or more; rashes not on the site from the bite, migrating pains in joints/tendons, frustration, stiff neck, facial paralysis, tingling or perhaps numbness inside the extremities, multiple enlarged lymph glands, irregular pulse, throat infection, changes in eyesight, fever of 100 to 102 F, and severe fatigue. The late stage is seen as arthritis of just one or two huge joints, disabling neurological disorders, and numbness in the vulnerable parts. Biology of Spirochetes

Borrelia burgdorferi, just like the human virus Treponema pallidum, is a spirochete. Spirochetes really are a group of phylogenetically-distinct bacteria that contain a unique method of motility by means of axial filaments (endoflagella). Spirochetes happen to be widespread in viscous conditions and are seen in the intestinal tract tracts of animals plus the oral cavity of humans. The spirochetes possess a unique cell surface which usually accompanies their unique type of motility. The endoflagella are comprised within the periplasmic space between a semi rigid peptidoglycan helix and a multi-layer, flexible external membrane sheath. When the filaments rotate in this particular space, the spirochetes transfer cork-screw fashion. This type of activity is regarded as an version to viscous environments, including aquatic sediments, biofilms, mucosal tissues and the intestinal tracts of family pets. For pathogens, this allows the spirochetes to hide their flagella, which can be normally antigenic, from the sponsor immune protection.

Spirochetes are usually much longer than they are large, and often their width is definitely below the resolving power of the sunshine microscope. Consequently , most spirochetes cannot be seen using typical light microscopy....

References: Eggers, Christian They would., et 's. 2001. Transduction by phiBB-1, a bacteriophage of Borrelia Burdorferi. American Society to get Microbiology, volume. 183: 4771-4778.

EUCALB: The Spirochete Borrelia Stresses

Fraser, Claire Meters. et al. 1997. Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Characteristics, vol. 390: 580-586.

EUCALB: The Spirochete Borrelia Strains

The Lyme Disease Guideline: Tick Lifestyle Cycle

Samuels DS; Radolf, JD (2010)


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